Canfield Family Records (Ohio And California)

   Colbert Austin CANFIELD is the subject of one chapter in my recent book, "Nine Feet from Tip to Tip: the California Condor Through History" (Symbios Books, 2012). Following are the references I reviewed while writing the chapter.

1. Howard, D. M. 1996. Cowpath to main drag, Monterey's Alvarado Street. A business history 1830-1930. Privately published, Pacific Grove, California.

Dr. Colbert A. CANFIELD born 1829 Geauga County, Ohio.He had been in Monterey, California since 1856 [1853?]. "Wife, Anita Watson. Graduate of Western Reserve College, Cleveland [Note: not quite accurate - Western Reserve Academy, Hudson, Ohio]. Early Army surgeon at Presidio and U. S. Revenue Collector at Custom House. With Smithsonian. Physician. Address Block 26, Main Street, 1868-1872 practice period." Dr. Canfield died 1872 Monterey, California.
Colbert Austin CANFIELD born 1862 Monterey, California. Painter. Address in Monterey, Block 6 Lot 16 Rodrick Building. Opened 14 March 1891. Also in Salinas 1892, and opened in Pacific Grove 1900.

2. Catalogues of the officers and students in the Western Reserve College (Hudson, Ohio)
Colbert A. CANFIELD shown in 1848, 1849 and 1850 catalogues as a student of "Dr. Hamilton" NOTE: Wikipedia information on Western Reserve Academy: "Western Reserve Academy was established in 1826 as the Western Reserve College and Preparatory School in Hudson, Ohio"

3. 1850 Census - Chardon Township, Geagua County, Ohio - 6 July 1850
Austin CANFIELD, 46, born New York; farmer
C. A. CANFIELD, 22, born Ohio; student
Eugene V. CANFIELD, 19, born Ohio; farmer
Mary E. CANFIELD, 15, born Ohio
Seraph M. CANFIELD, 12, born Ohio

4. 1850 Census - Jefferson Township, Wells County, Indiana - 15 August 1850
John LEIBBRIND [LEIBBRANDT], 35, born Germany; farmer
Christiana LEIBBRIND, 39, born Maryland
Matilda LEIBBRIND, 13, born Indiana
Susannah LEIBBRIND, 6, born Indiana
Jacob LEIBBRIND, 5, born Indiana
David LEIBBRIND, 4, born Indiana
John LEIBBRIND, 2, born Indiana

5. 1850 Census - Monterey, Monterey County, California - 25 September 1850
James WATSON, 46, born England; merchant; real property $35,000
Maria WATSON, 46, born California
Francisco WATSON, 20, born California
Mariana WATSON, 15, born California
Narcissa WATSON, 12, born California
David WATSON, 5, born California
Annetta WATSON, 6, born California
Adolphus WATSON, 5, born California

6. Anonymous. 1880. Pioneer and general history of Geauga County with sketches of some of the pioneers and prominent men. The Historical Society of Geauga County.
Page 444, Lyman Benton: came from Guilford, Connecticut to Geauga Co. in 1803; married Anna Hopson; children Delia, Ann, Augustus, Andrus, and Lodemia. NOTE: Lodemia Benton was Colbert Canfield's mother.]
Page 478, discussion of Geauga County, Ohio, physicians: "Dr. Sherman Goodwin studied, and practiced here until 1848. Losing health, he moved to Victoria, Texas, and is still living in that country... Dr. Colbert A. Canfield, a graduate of Hudson [Western Reserve Academy, Hudson, Ohio], gained something of a ride [in the early 1850s?], as Dr. Goodwin grew old, but he finally went to California."
Pages 542-547, biography of Wallace John Ford (son of John A. and Eliza Ford, born 21 November 1832). "In 1853 his health had become impaired. In hope of strengthening his constitution, and securing a fortune, he determined a trip to California. On March 2d of that year, in company with young Dr. Colbert A. Canfield, of Chardon, he started for the 'Garden of the Hesperdes,' going by New York and Panama. Horace Greely gave him a letter of introduction to Postmaster Moore, of San Francisco, and this 'go west young man' amused himself a long time in trying to decipher that remarkably written letter. On arriving at San Francisco, he entered the service of James Mills, formerly of Ashtabula county, Ohio, and took merchandise to the northern part of the State."
Pages 542-547, biography of Wallace John Ford (son of John A. and Eliza Ford, born 21 November 1832). "The next January [1854], in company with [Colbert A.] Canfield and others, he [Wallace John Ford] went south to the Los Angelos country, to purchase cattle for the San Francisco market... The trail of the drove lay along the coast, and at one point on the sandy beach of the Pacific, the rocks of the coast range of mountains come down to the sea, and could only be passed when the tide was out. When the ebb left the solid sand of that shore, the drove passed the point, and was led away, far up into a clover-grown valley, for feed. The tent was pitched, and camp fires burned into the night. One man, with saddled mule, watched the cattle. Canfield was on watch from midnight until morning.
"At day dawn, March 19th [1854], a strange thing happened to young Ford... In the early gray of the morning light, he left the tent, its sleepers undisturbed, and passed along a little brook running down the valley. In the shadow of its bank he was discovered by Doctor Canfield, who mistook him for an Indian or an animal, without even a suspicion that any one was so early away from the tent, and without hail, he promptly leveled a Colt's revolver and fired. The supposed native fell. On reaching him, Canfield was horrified beyond measure to discover in the victim, his friend. This was in no way diminished, when he found that his bullet had entered a little behind the ear, traversed the base of the head, passing directly through, making an exit at the orifice of the right eye, which it carried away with it. The distracted doctor bore his friend back to camp, and washed his wound. Ford seems to have been no more than stunned. 'You will not live more than half an hour,' was Canfield's declaration to him. 'I shall come out all right,' was the resolute response, and he did. He was placed on horseback, and rode two and one-half miles to a Spanish ranch, where he lay the rest of the day, on the earthen floor, with a folded overcoat for a pillow. The next day, Sunday, he rode with the drove 5 miles, and camped. On Monday he rode 15 miles, and slept that night with his saddle for a pillow; and thus he went on with the party, by day and night, until Thursday, when he left the drove, and rode 24 miles, accompanied by Thaddeus Mills, to San Luis Obispo, where he took a steamer for San Francisco. In two weeks the wound was healed, with no other treatment than frequent washing and application of wet cloths. It is but just to say, that Mr. Ford attached no blame to Dr. Canfield (now dead), for the accident, which came so near taking his life, and, as before, they were ever afterwards firm friends.
"For the twenty-six intervening years, Mr. Ford has experienced no inconvenience from this injury, other than the loss of his eye and impaired power of his left ear." [NOTE: Ford returned to Ohio in 1855, and did not return West.]

7. San Francisco Bulletin (San Francisco, California) - 13 August 1858 - page 3
"STILL A NUMEROUS FAMILY.--A paragraph has been floating around for some time, saying that a native Californian lady, Merced Ortega, wife of Jose Castro, now living at Monterey, has born thirty-six children to her present husband, &c. This was rather over-stating the case, and Dr. Colbert A. Canfield of Monterey writes, on 4th August, to the Santa Cruz Sentinel, correcting the story. He says: 'Dona Merced Ortega de Castro has born twenty-four children by her present husband, seven of whom were girls and the rest boys. She had two pairs of twins in succession--and she has never had any other children. I am well acquainted with Dona Merced and her family; have frequently been employed by them as physician, and to-day received my information from Dona Merced herself.'"

8. Anonymous. 1925. History of Monterey and Santa Cruz counties, California, cradle of California's history and romance. Volume II. Chicago, Illinois: S. J. Clarke Publishing Company.
Pages 291-292, in biographical sketch of Charles E. Canfield: "He was born in the city of Monterey, October 31, 1865, and is the son of Dr. Colbert A. and Anita (Watson) Canfield, the later of whom was the daughter of that stout 'pathfinder' and influential pioneer, James Watson, whose name will ever live in the annals of Monterey and the coast country. James Watson, a native of England was here in the days of the beginning of the real American occupancy and opened and conducted a general store in Monterey, one of the first to be established in that place. Among his friends none was more prominent than General John C. Fremont and it was his privilege to assist that distinguished 'pathfinder' and empire builder in his early explorations under the auspices of the United States government."
Pages 291-292, in biographical sketch of Charles E. Canfield: "The late Dr. Colbert A. Canfield, in his generation one of the most widely respected and influential citizens of Monterey, was no less prominent in his line and his memory will ever be kept green in the community in which his gentle influence was for so long and so usefully exerted. Dr. Canfield, a native of Ohio, was the first resident physician at The Presidio and was for years an official of the old customs house in Monterey. All the old records reveal indisputably that his services in this region contributed greatly to the development of Monterey county along lines of permanent value. The knowledge he thus acquired through his experiences in the west brought him recognition throughout the country. The possessor of varied talents, which found their outlet in many fields of usefulness, he became most widely known through his articles published in magazines of a scientific and critical character, his profound ability as an original thinker and as a writer thus becoming widely recognized. During a long period Dr. Canfield acted as the Pacific coast agent and representative of the Smithsonian Institution at Washington and his special labors in behalf of that institution in the field of conchology created for him a permanent monument of memory in that engrossing field. The study of conchology was a delightful diversion for him during such leisure as his professional and official duties granted and he brought to this study a measure of the original research that imparted a special value to his contributions in that field. The inexhaustible opportunities afforded by the wealth of material singular to this coast made it possible for him to gratify his ambition to extend his researches along that line and a splendid and really notable collection of shells rewarded the assiduity of his labors in this behalf. Thoughtfully considered and scientifically accurate articles on this subject from his pen frequently appeared in leading periodicals and he came to be recognized as an authority on matters relating to the shells of the Pacific coast. Dr. Canfield died in 1872."
Pages 291-292, in biographical sketch of Charles E. Canfield: "Reared in Monterey and in Santa Cruz, Charles E. Canfield acquired his education in the schools of these sister cities and as a young man he became employed as a clerk in a grocery store in Santa Cruz, there becoming thoroughly acquainted with the business forms and the details of the retail grocery trade. In 1892, the year before his marriage, Mr. Canfield engaged in the grocery business on his own account in Santa Cruz, in association with F. H. Stikeman, a partnership that was maintained for two years, at the end of which he bought his partner's interest in the store and thereafter carried on the business by himself until 1898, when he sold the place and entered upon an engagement as a traveling salesman for a wholesale house. For two years Mr. Canfield carried on as a 'knight of the grip,' calling on trade throughout California, and then he left the road and settled down again in Santa Cruz, taking up there the realty business which since has engaged his time and his talents and in which he has become quite successful, for years recognized as one of the leading realtors on the coast. Diligent in his own business, Mr. Canfield has not been unmindful of the obligation of public service resting upon those who are thus called and for four years he has rendered acceptable service as a member of the board of commissioners for the city of Santa Cruz.
"On April 19, 1893, in Santa Cruz, Charles E. Canfield was united in marriage to Miss Cora B. Picknell, who also was born in California, daughter of Samuel Picknell and a member of one of the pioneer families of the state. To Mr. and Mrs. Canfield two sons have been born: Carlton E. and Laurence P. Canfield, the latter of whom (1925) is a student at Stanford University. The lamented Carlton E. Canfield, a young man of much promise, was in attendance at a military training school for service during the time of this country's participation in the World war and there died, a victim of the dread epidemic of influenza that swept the country in 1918. The Canfields have a pleasant home in Santa Cruz and have ever taken an interested and helpful part in the city's general social and cultural activities. Mr. Canfield is a member of the local parlor of the Native Sons of the Golden West and in the affairs of that popular and patriotic organization has for years taken an earnest interest."

9. Martin, E. 1911. History of Santa Cruz County, California, with biographical sketches. Los Angeles, California: Historic Record Company.
Pages 278-279, same information on James Watson as in the 1925 "History or Monterey and Santa Cruz counties."
Pages 278-279 shortened version of information on Colbert A. Canfield Sr. as in the 1925 "History or Monterey and Santa Cruz counties."
Pages 279-280, similar information on Charles E. Canfield as in the 1925 "History or Monterey and Santa Cruz counties." Additional information: "Two years were spent on the road. Later he engaged in promoting the oil business in Bakersfield and at Santa Maria, but more recently he has been interested in the real estate and insurance business, transacting a brokerage business in real estate throughout the entire estate. As agent for fire, life and accident insurance companies, he has established a business of considerable importance, the work of which demands much of his time. The only fraternal organization in which he is identified is the Native Sons of the Golden West."
Pages 335-337, biographical sketch of John LEIBBRANDT: "No name has been more intimately identified with the development of Santa Cruz as a seashore resort than that of Liebbrandt. Due credit should be given to the members of the family for their activity in promoting the material prosperity of the city along a line of permanent value. By inaugurating improvements on the water-front they gave an impetus to a movement which resulted in the city attaining a position among the favorite and beautiful coast resorts of the state. Their civic labors extended into other lines and a number of movements indispensible to local progress owe much to their sustaining aid. Side by side with the names of many other patriotic pioneers stand the names of the members of this stalwart family of pioneers, and in the annals of local history they are worthy of conspicuous mention.
"The founder of the name in California was John Leibbrandt, Sr., who came to California in 1857 by way of the Isthmus of Panama and who for years prior to his death held a prominent position in the citizenship of Santa Cruz. During young manhood he married Miss Christina Custer, who was born in the south, descended from ancestors identified from colonial days with the history of America. It is a matter of history that her progenitors were among the first settlers in our country from the old world, and she was one of the original heirs of the spoliation claim. Her father and George Washington were own cousins. Many other relatives were prominent in securing independence for the land during the Revolutionary struggle.
"When the family came to California in 1857 the father, John Sr., settled in Trintity county and became interested in mining, meeting with fair success in those ventures. The year 1859 found him a pioneer of Santa Cruz. Shortly after his arrival he bought thirty acres of water-front property, on the site of which now [1911] stand the beautiful Casino and bath-house. To him belongs the honor of conceiving the idea of making Santa Cruz a seaside resort. The initial step in that direction was taken in 1868, when he built a swimming tank, bath-house and entertainment hall on his property. From time to time the buildings were enlarged as needed and he continued to manage them until his death. John, Jr., who was born in Fort Wayne, Ind., November 20, 1849, was associated with his father and later with his brother, David, in the management of the seaside resort. The property was sold to the Casino Company in 1905 and since then he has practically retired from business responsibilities. When the father died the estate was equally divided among the children, and John, Jr., and David thus acquired large mining interests in Trinity county. Trinity street in Santa Cruz was named after their gold mine and Leibbrandt street was named in honor of the family. In 1889 John, Jr., was united in marriage with Miss Clara Horthorn, a native of Ohio, and by this union he has one son, Clyde. In fraternal relations he is identified with the Knights of Pythias."

10. Sacramento Bee (Sacramento, California) - 3 March 1859
Child born (no name or sex given) to Dr. C. A. CANFIELD and Anita M. WATSON, 5 February 1859. [NOTE: this is Caroline CANFIELD]

11. San Francisco Bulletin (San Francisco, California), 25 April 1860 - page 1
"THE NEW IDRIA QUICKSILVER MINES. The mines of cinnabar, known as the New Idria Quicksilver Mines, are situated, the Pacific Sentinel remarks, in the southwest corner of the county of Fresno, in the easternmost range or chain of mountains forming the Pacheco Pass, or more generally known as the Coast Range, about 80 miles in a southeastern direction from the town of San Juan, Monterey county. The mines can be reached by a line of stages, which leave semi-weekly from San Juan, making the trip through in a day. The route is over a good road, built by the company, who are now working the mines, and leads up the San Benito Creek, nearly to its source, then ascending to the summit of the mountain range, and after following along the ridge of the mountain, some 8 or 10 miles, the road turns abruptly down the side of the mountain two or three miles to the mineral region. These mines were discovered by Dr. William Higgins, Mr. Pitts, Jesse Smith and others, in 1851. Little appears to have been done until several years later. The Sentinel continues:
"Dr. C. A. Canfield, of Monterey, visited the locality in 1857, and gives us the following interesting description of the country in the immediate vicinity of the then new discoveries. In traveling along the ridge several miles after leaving the San Benito, one comes abruptly to a talcose formation (talcose slate) in most cases broken and desolate, and sparkling and brilliant in the sun's rays, reflected from the scales and fragments of talcose rock. This talcose slate is a variety of colors, yellow, red, blue, green, and almost black. In this formation are found blue, black and green boulder-like rocks, isolated apparently as though concretions or segregations in the midst of the principal formation. This black rock is very heavy, and beautifully painted with green, and is composed of chrome and iron.
"In 1856 or 1857 a company was formed to work the rock by a number of persons, who supposed it was silver ore, and who did not find out their mistake until they had spent a large sum of money in various ways. The company suspended operations, owing to the sudden elopement and defalcation of their treasurer, with about $4,000--being the residue of the company's capital, yet unexpended. This was a damper, but in exploring the country some of the company discovered a mine of cinnabar, and their plans were changed. The company abandoned the idea of extracting silver and turned their attention towards the quicksilver, but it was not profitable, and further operations were suspended. This silver ore is found principally on the highest part of the ridge, along which the road runs, and is about half a mile from where is found the cinnabar ore. The rock which contains the cinnabar appears to be a dyke of metamorphic rock, running through the talose formation, and emerging through it in several places.
"About two years ago, the mine fell into the hands of Daniel Gibb & Co., of San Francisco, who had the energy and capital to prosecute the work extensively. Nearly $200,000 have been expended in their operations, and they are now more actively prosecuted than ever, as the mines begin to yield a rich return for the capital invested. The mine yielded in six months of last year about 1,400 flasks of 75 pounds each, worth about $100,000 and is now yielding at the rate of 250 to 300 flasks per month. There is at present five furnaces in operation and about 200 men employed, and all under the superintendence of William Neely Thompson. Those employed in the mines and otherwise form a population of about 300 persons in that immediate neighborhood.
"Several other new discoveries of cinnabar have lately been reported, and it can be truly said of Fresno county that mining operations have only commenced. San Juan has a very lucrative and important trade with these mines. It is the rendezvous of travelers, cattle dealers, and rancheros, and the centre of a rich, productive district. It possesses elements of prosperity which make it a place of no inconsiderable note."

12. 1860 Census - Monterey, Monterey County, California - 2 June 1860
Colbert A. CANFIELD, 31, born New York (sic); physician
Anna CANFIELD, 18, born California
Caroline CANFIELD, 6 months, born California

13. 1860 Census - San Antonio, Monterey County, California - 20 June 1860
James WATSON, 55, born England; farmer; real estate $6000, personal worth $17,000
Mariana WATSON, 55, born California
Maria Y. WATSON, 17, born California [Is this Annetta?]
David WATSON, 14, born California
Adolfo WATSON (age?) born California

14. 1860 Census - Weaverville, Trinity County, California - 22 August 1860
John LEIBBERND [LEIBBRANDT], 45, born Wittenberg; laborer; no real property; personal worth $100
Christiana LEIBBERND, 50, born Maryland
Susan LEIBBERND, 15, born Indiana
Jacob LEIBBERND, 14, born Indiana
David LEIBBERND, 13, born Indiana
John LEIBBERND, 11, born Indiana

15. Canfield, C. A. 1860. The poison-oak and its antidote. American Journal of Pharmacy, Third Series, Volume 8, Number 5 (September 1860), pages 412-415.
Dr. Colbert A. Canfield wrote a paper [10 October 1859] on relieving the symptoms of poison-oak by using the juice of the plant Grindelia (in the Composite, or Sunflower, family). His paper was widely quoted in later years, and he is given credit for this useful treatment.
"I am cognizant of six cases in which the effects of poison-oak have yielded to the Grindelia when other remedies have failed."

16. California State Death Index
--Colbert Austin CANFIELD born 1 April 1862 California; died 12 June 1951 San Francisco County, California, age 89; mother's maiden name - WATSON
-- Anita M. [CANFIELD] OEST born 11 February 1864 California; died 3 December 1945 San Mateo County, California, age 81; mother's maiden name WATSON.
--Charles E. CANFIELD born 31 October 1865 California; died 24 May 1943 Santa Cruz County, California, age 77; mother's name WATSON.
-- Vernon LEIBBRANDT b. 10 February 1881 California; died 13 January 1945 San Mateo County, California
--Effie Lena VIRGIN born 12 September 1868 California; mother AUSTIN, father VIRGIN; died Monterey County, California, 21 September 1957
--Anna June THORNE born 1 June 1899 California; mother VIRGIN, father CANFIELD; died Monterey County, California, 27 November 1983

17. O'Donnell, M. H. 1964. Peninsula Diary: Adobes destroyed and lost. Monterey Peninsula Herald (Monterey, California), 24 February 1964.
"It is with many regrets that I look over the records of the fine old adobe buildings that we have lost in Monterey in years past. Who ever heard of the Cypress Adobe, so named on account of the cypress trees on the property? It stood on Calle Principal, in the approximate location of the present Montgomery Ward building.
"The house was originally a one-story residence of five rooms, about 75 feet long, and reportedly one of the finest such structures erected in Monterey. According to the WPA Historical Survey, one of the early owners was Dr. Colbert A. Canfield, who married a daughter of James Watson, an English sailor, who arrived in Monterey in 1823 or '24, and in later years became a prosperous and prominent citizen. In the early years of Monterey, Dr. Canfield attained considerable fame as a naturalist, his scientific researches being of immense service to the county.
"The adobe eventually came into the hands of his son, C. A. Canfield, who devoted his time to house, sign and carriage painting, as well as continuing his father's scientific work. In later years, Canfield Jr. rented the house to Fred Dana, who turned the premises into a rooming house. The late Harry A. Greene, well known Monterey resident, was a still later owner of the property. The house finally fell into disuse through lack of care, and was torn down in 1915."

18. San Francisco Bulletin (San Francisco, California) - 26 May 1864 - page 3
"THE WEATHER, CROPS, STOCK, ETC., IN MONTEREY COUNTY.--C. A. Canfield writes in the Monterey Gazette of 20th May [1864] as follows:
"'Since the time of writing my last meteorological report, quite a number of heavy showers of rain have fallen, making the total amount up to the present time, 7 [and] 85/100 inches. On five different nights, rain has fallen, and twice in the daytime, causing the vegetation to put on the livery of green which it generally wears here at this time of year. There has been no frost lately, so that the little rain that has fallen has done more good than it otherwise would have done; but it came too late to save the crops and cattle.
"'If the rain that we have had lately had fallen in April instead of now, it would have kept the ground moist and the crops growing, and would have prevented to a great extent the terrible loss of stock animals that is now inevitable. From the grain crops that were sown, there will be saved a little hay or straw, but the most of it will not be worth cutting. Potatoes and beets will turn out little better.
"'The cattle, sheep and horses (in which the wealth of the county consists) will nearly all die this year, if they are not "killed" to prevent them from dying. The sheep, it is true, can be driven away to find pasture in other localities, and so will not be a total loss. And many of the ranch horses can be saved by driving them into the small valleys in the mountains, but all the small colts, and many of the large ones, are always destroyed by the panthers (California lions) that abound in those places, in the thickets. The few cattle that can be got together on the ranches, are now selling at from $2 to $3 a head; large cattle that are fat, bring, say, $15; but there are very few of them. Of the rest, not even the hides will be saved, for they will die, for the most part, in inaccessible places, and where they cannot be found. There is then no prospect ahead for the stock raiser in this part of the State, except destitution and poverty. Of course there are a few favored localities near the sea coast where the grass does not dry up entirely, and where the cattle will not die so much, but what I have stated above, will apply to almost all of southern California.'"

19. San Francisco Bulletin (San Francisco, California) - 29 June 1864 - page 5
"DRIFTING SANDS.--Dr. C. A. Canfield, writing in the Monterey Gazette, of 24th June, says that the constant violent winds on the Salinas Plains, have, in the southern part of Monterey county, at some of the ranches, drifted the dust and sand as high as the corrals and fences, like snow-drifts, and the small ravines and hollows have been drifted full, and almost all vestige of vegetation dried up and blown off from the plains and open hills."

20. Canfield, C. A. 1866. On the habits of the Prongbuck (Antilocapra americana), and the periodical shedding of its horns. Proceedings of the Scientific Meetings of the Zoological Society of London [27 February 1866], pages 105-110.
The Zoological Society of London printed a letter that Dr. Colbert A. Canfield had written 10 September 1858 to Spencer Baird, Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. It discussed in detail the habits of the pronghorn antelope, as observed both in the wild and in captivity, and in particular discussed the pronghorn shedding its horns, not previously reported in the scientific literature [see Caton 1877].

21. Proceedings of the California Academy of Natural Sciences (San Francisco) 5 February 1866.
At the regular meeting of the Academy 5 February 1866, Mr. Dall presented the following paper by Dr. Canfield.
"Notes on Antilocapra Americana, Ord. by Dr. C. A. Canfield, of Monterey. The following notes were taken from 1855 to 1858, in Monterey County, California, and were communicated to Prof. [Spencer] Baird in 1859.
"About the first of January the old bucks all shed their horns. A few days after, one was shot, with two hairy stumps or horn-cores, several inches long, just tipped with growing horn. The 'prong' commenced the same process at its tip, and gradually coalesced with the main horn, leaving no suture. As the horn increases in length it curves forward and inward. It takes several months to perfect the new horn. The females possess small curved horns, one to three inches long, sometimes recurving to the skull, which were not proved to be deciduous.
"The horn, when shed, leaves a process of the frontal bone, covered with hair, soon replaced as above by horn at the tip. These facts were more minutely observed in two young bucks, reared by hand to the age respectively of one and two years.
"These facts tend to separate the genus Antilocapra from the family Cavicornia, and it may possibly form a family by itself."

22. Proceedings of the California Academy of Natural Sciences (San Francisco, California), Regular meeting 19 February 1866.
"Dr. Colbert A. Canfield, of Monterey, was chosen a Corresponding Member."

23. Pacific Coast Directory 1867
Colbert A. CANFIELD, Alvarado Street, Monterey, California; Monterey County Coroner; Monterey City Clerk; physician, apothecary

24. Report of the Council of the Zoological Society of London, 29 April 1867. London: Taylor and Francis.
Page 5 - Dr. Colbert A. Canfield of Monterey, California, was elected as a Corresponding Member of the Zoological Society of London on 16 August 1866

25. Gibson, R. E. 1993. A First in Hot Bathing--How a war and a divorce figured in the birth of the Boardwalk in 1868. Mercury News (San Jose, California) 13 July 1993, page 1B.
"The Leibbrandts came to Santa Cruz in 1863 and bought Beach Flats and waterfront lands. Johnnie Leibbrandt built the West's first hot saltwater plunge in 1868, on the waterfront east of today's 'Neptune's Kingdom.' Johnnie and David Leibbrandt were prodigious swimmers, known for Capitola to Santa Cruz open-water contest. They named the plunge 'Dolphin Baths,' with a large main-floor pool, and a fine upstairs ballroom. The steam generator that pumped and heated the saltwater also regaled swimmers with steam-powered music from its poolside calliope.
"Beach Street didn't exist then, and carriages drove on the beach itself. The Leibbrandts built the original boardwalk along the waterfront in 1868, for easier access to the baths. A gravel foundation for the 1876 railroad tracks was placed on the sands, and later fill-dirt flanking the tracks became Beach Street."
A. F. Wheaton in 1879 erected "palatial baths at a cost of $12.000." He was bought out by Capt. Fred Miller. "The Leibbrandts kept abreast of the competition, buying up the riverside bathhouses, building Dolphin Park across the street from Dolphin Baths, and sponsoring the Dolphin baseball team. But in 1875 Johnnie Leibbrandt collapsed during a marathon swim, and that marked the onset of debilitating arthritis, which left him bedridden by 1887. And Miller was not adjusting as a landlubber. In 1889, he became captain of the steamer Maggie Ross, leaving his brothers to manage the bathhouse.
"With both baths deprived of their original owners, it was only a month later that the Leibbrandts and Millers decided to consolidate as a single enterprise. Business grew to such a degree that their two bathhouses were not enough. In 1893, they received the backing of San Francisco millionaire A. P. Hotaling, the builder of the St. George Hotel who bid them spare no expense in creating the finest bathhouse possible. The new structure would stand halfway between the Dolphin and Neptune baths."

26. Letter 20 May 1870 from Dr. Colbert A. Canfield (Monterey, California) to Spencer Fullerton Baird (Washington, D. C.) [Smithsonian Institution Archives, Record Unit 7002, Box 17, Folder 2].
"Dear Sir: You are probably wondering, no doubt, why you have not heard from me lately, & are beginning to think, perhaps, that I am ungrateful for the favors that you and the other Washington friends have done me.
"A series of domestic misfortunes and the extra amount of political service that is expected of me since I am 'a government official' have rendered it impossible for me to forward to you the collections that I have been so long talking about sending.
"I spent all my leisure time for a week or two in directing and supervising the location of a road from this town to the Point Pinos Lighthouse Reservation, by request of Col. Williamson, --and received no pay, perhaps because I did not ask for any.
"So in local and general politics, our party seems to think that I must at least be their clerk and attend to the correspondence, &c, required.
"I thought, and all expected, last year, that there would be no elections to be bothered with during 1870;--but two have been called, and probably a third will be called this year, extra elections; and as I am Clerk of the Board of Registration & Election of this town and cannot very well refuse to serve as such, for party reasons, all my time this summer and fall will be frittered away.
"The first that takes place will be held on the 7th of June; two Rolls or Poll Lists for each election are necessary; and for the last two or three weeks I have been making up the first Roll List.
"My wife has been unwell and sick for months, requiring much care and personal attention, and on the 15th was confined. A daughter was born alive and well; but the mother died within an hour, of ( ) haemorrhage.
"In her two preceding confinements she had near lost her life by flooding, and a fatal result this time was anticipated by me, and by her also.
"I am thus left with a family of five little children, the oldest of the age of 11 years. A rich man who could employ servants would find under these circumstances many additional cares and demands upon his time; much more one who cannot afford to pay for extra services.
"I am constantly adding to my collections of Monterey species, but principally of shells, quite a number of new ones not yet named;--411 species in all. I am getting more birds' nests and eggs again.*
"As soon as I can 'get things in order again' I will try to forward to you all that I have collected. I suppose that P.M.S.S. Co. still continues to carry boxes for you free, as before?
"Yours truly, Colbert A. Canfield.
"*And while writing this last line, a boy comes bringing me a nest & eggs of some unknown bird--, for which I give him a bit."

27. 1870 Census - Monterey, Monterey County, California - 31 August 1870
C. A. CANFIELD, 42, born Ohio; physician and surgeon; $1200 real property, $1200 personal property
Caroline M. CANFIELD, 10, born California
Colbert A. CANFIELD, 8, born California
Anna M. CANFIELD, 6, born California
Charles E. CANFIELD, 4, born California
Mariana WATSON, "housekeeper" [mother-in-law], 66, born California; $1000 real property, $100 personal property
Mariana GLEASON [relation?], 17, born California

28. 1870 Census - Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz County, California - 17 June 1870
John LEIBRANDT [LEIBBRANDT], 55, born Wittenberg; farmer; $1500 real estate, $300 personal property
Christiana LEIBRANDT, 60, born Maryland
Jacob LEIBRANDT, 23, born Indiana; day laborer
John LEIBRANDT, 20, born Indiana

29. Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution 1874. Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office.
Page 87, Table of monthly meteorological reports preserved in the Smithsonian shows Colbert A. Canfield reporting from Monterey 1859-1860, from Meadow Valley 1864 [location?], and from Monterey 1864-1872.

30. Steele, J. G. 1876. Grindelia robusta. The American Observer Medical Monthly. New Series, Volume 3, pages 351-356 [July 1876].
"The late Dr. C. A. Canfield, of Monterey, Cal., was the first to call attention of the medical profession to the therapeutic action of Grindelia robusta in rhus [poison-oak] poisoning. Some twelve years since he contributed to the Pacific Medical & Surgical Journal a short account of the plant, its botanic features, habitat and antidotal qualities. My attention being thus directed to it, I procured specimens and made various pharmaceutical preparations, such as tinctures, fluid and solid extracts, pills, elixirs and syrup, containing the virtues of the drug which were prescribed by physicians in sufficient quantities to warrant me keeping on hand a supply of the preparations. It has been my practice yearly, during the months of May and June, to go into the rural districts, and have gathered and dried in the shade, from one to two tons of the herb. Since the mention made by Dr. Canfield as above, however, a new use has been discovered for it. Asthma and its kindred ailments have been made to succumb in a remarkable manner."

31. Caton, J. D. 1877. The antelope and deer of America. Antilocapra and Cervidae of North America. New York, New York: Hurd and Houghton.
Pages 25-26: "The first allusion which I find to the deciduous character of the horns of this antelope is in the letter-press of Audubon and Bachman ["Quadrupeds of America"], where they say, 'It was supposed by the hunters of Fort Union that the Prong-horned Antelope dropped its horns; but as no person had ever shot or killed one without these ornamental and useful appendages, we managed to prove the contrary to the men at the fort by knocking off the bony part of the horn and showing the hard spongy membrane beneath, well attached to the skull, and perfectly immovable.'
"The hunters were right, and the scientists were wrong... Some years later, on the 19th of April, 1858, Dr. C. A. Canfield, of Monterey, California, in a paper which he sent to Professor Baird of the Smithsonian Institute, communicated many new and interesting facts concerning the physiology and habits of this animal; and, among others, the surprising announcement that although it has a hollow horn, like the ox, yet this horn is cast off and renewed annually. This statement by Dr. Canfield was considered by Professor Baird so contradictory to all zoological laws, which had been considered well established by observed facts, that he did not venture to publish it, till the same fact was further attested by Mr. Bartlett, superintendent of the gardens of the Zoological Society of London, who, in 1855 [sic - 1865], repeated the fact in a paper published in the Proceedings of that society. In the February following, the paper which Dr. Canfield, eight years before, had furnished the Smithsonian Institute, containing the first well attested account of the interesting fact, was published in the Proceedings of that society.
"At the time I gave an account of Mr. Bartlett's observation, in a paper I read before the Ottawa Academy of Natural Sciences in 1868, and which was published by that society, I was not aware that the same fact had been previously communicated by Dr. Canfield to Professor Baird, else I should have taken pleasure in mentioning it."
Pages 36-37: "Dr. Canfield seems to have been the first who bestowed any serious study upon the glands of this animal [pronghorn]. He says, 'The strong and peculiar odor comes principally from the ischiadic glands.' This observation was made on the living animal, while Richardson, from the dead subject, ascribed it to the subauricular glands. If I agree with Dr. Canfield, that the hip glands are the most effective in the emission of this odor, it is because the substance secreted is more pungent, for it is less in quantity that that secreted by the glands on the head... After Canfield, Bartlett next mentions the glands of this animal, but he does not seem to have studied them closely."

32. Dall, W. H. 1871. Descriptions of sixty new species of mollusks from the West Coast of North America and the North Pacific Ocean, with notes on others already described. American Journal of Conchology 7(2) [2 November 1871]:93-160.
Page 93: "While acting as Chief of the Scientific Corps of the Western Union Telegraph Expedition, in 1865-6, I obtained leave of absence for three weeks, and proceeded to the town of Monterey, some ninety miles south of San Francisco, on the coast of California. This was in the month of January. During my stay, I devoted my entire time to the examination of the Mollusk fauna of that locality, which is very rich and varied. The results of much arduous labor (I was unable to dredge), in which I was most kindly seconded by Dr. C. A. Canfield, of Monterey, may be found summed up in the Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences [Volume III, p. 271, 1866]."
Page 129, discussing the mollusc Gibbula Canfieldi: "One specimen of this modest little shell was found dead on the beach at Monterey. I take pleasure in dedicating it to Dr. C. A. Canfield of Monterey, who had done much for science with very slender means."

33. Anonymous. 1873. Death of Dr. Canfield. Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal and Western Lancet 6(9):448 [February 1873].
"Colbert A. Canfield, M. D., died at his residence in Monterey, California, a few weeks ago. He was a man of considerable ability in his profession and a contributor, some years ago, to the columns of this Journal."

34. Anonymous. 1875. The hand book of Monterey and vicinity. A complete guide book for tourists, campers and visitors. Monterey, California: Walton and Curtis.
Pages 85-87, Sea Bathing at Monterey: "The late Colbert A. Canfield, M. D., whose scientific researches have been of immense service to the country, writes as follows:
"'There is no better place on the coast, within easy access of the large towns of California, for a watering place, than Monterey. The climate, mild and salubrious; the beautiful natural scenery, landscapes, and "water-scapes," with the wide, smooth bay in the foreground, all combine to make it the most attractive seaside retreat that can be found; for the Bay of Monterey is one of the most beautiful in the world. The town is sheltered from the cold northeast winds by the pine-covered hills on the side toward the ocean, and still its atmosphere is scarcely even hot or uncomfortably warm. It is, consequently, a very healthy place for all classes of persons, but especially for children. Hence it is, I suppose, that the children are as numerous in its streets as re the quails in the neighboring thickets. The summer complaints of children are almost unknown, and it is a long time since there has prevailed here any contagious epidemic disease. The water of the bay has one peculiarity, viz: it is much warmer than that of the ocean outside. There is a strong current running into the bay on the north side, along fort Año Nuevo, that makes a complete circuit of the bay, along the eastern shore, and running thence westward along the south shore by the town of Monterey, it runs out around Point Pinos, even against the wind, with so strong a current that it is very hard rowing against in a boat. For this reason, the water near the town is several degrees warmer than it is on the Santa Cruz side of the bay. And also for this reason, I suppose, it is, there is so much beautiful seaweed growing on the southeast side of the bay.'
"'Nowhere on the coast is there such a variety of beautiful and delicate forms of sea-weed, and such an abundance, as here. Collectors of the article for scientific or ornamental purposes are in their glory here, and many of the shells are not devoid of beauty or variety.'
"'The surrounding country contains much beautiful scenery, and interesting drives made be had in various directions...with the certainty of a few hours of pleasant and healthful recreation. Within easy access of the town are plenty of opportunities for fishing or hunting, for those who like these sports.'"
Page 87-89, Chalybeate Waters, or Iron Springs. "Dr. Canfield, having examined the springs at the Pescadero and Point Cypress, writes: 'The rocky cape that shelters the town of Monterey from the sea, and forms its harbor, is a ridge of granite, coarse and rotten, the most of it easily crumbling to pieces where exposed to the waves or air, and in many places colored red with the iron which it contains. As the surface water (from rains and fogs) passes through this porous granite, it dissolves out the iron, as may be seen in nearly all the springs that flow from this granite ridge towards the sea; but only in a few places is the water sufficiently charged with iron to be called chalybeate, and to be serviceable as a remedial agent.'
"'The springs containing a noticeable quantity of iron, are near the mouth of the Carmel river, in the ravines that have been cut through the sandstone rocks into the granite, running down to the sea. There may be seen here cropping out thin strata of iron ore (carbonate and hydrated oxyd) sometimes pure, and sometimes mixed with sand. This is a few rods south of the farm house at the Pescadero. One spring in particular, in a ravine near the sea shore, has its waters so saturated with iron, that it is deposited in abundance around the margin of the pools, and on the sticks and stones in the water. There is no sulphur in the water, or next to none, and it is quite clear and palatable except for the iron which it contains. Here, then, we have a chalybeate water that will undoubtedly prove an excellent tonic for people who are debilitated and with but little blood in their veins, and it is also accompanied by all the other hygienic adjuvants necessary for the renovation of the strength of the feeble--a pure and healthy atmosphere, mild and warm--it being on the south side of the promontory of Point Pinos--cold bathing in the surf, as it rolls in from the ocean, or tepid baths in the warm and sheltered nooks among the rocks--as the state of health requires, or fancy dictates. The surrounding scenery is beautiful. There are wide beaches with beautiful sands, shells and curiously worn rocks, with caves and natural biridges. The little bay or Carmel, in front, is dotted with rocky islets covered with the nests of sea birds, and across the bay, Point Lobos rears up its granite walls and turrets, resounding with cries of seals and sea-lions that make it their habitation. The anlon (abelone) shells are very abundant here, and it is a favorite resort of the Chinese fishermen. Numbers of handsome agates are found on the beach, and a mine of silver and gold (?) was once opened at the water's edge. This vein contains silver, perhaps, but the metalliferous gangue or matrix being crystallized gypsum, (sulphate of lime) it would hardly be possible that it could contain gold.'"
NOTE: The introduction to this book attributes some of the writings of Dr. Canfield to unpublished notebooks. I have never seen any other reference to them, and wonder if they were preserved somewhere.

35. 1880 Census - Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz County, California - 12 June 1880
Jacob LEIBRANDT, 32, born Indiana; father born Wittenburgh, mother born Maryland; keeps bathing rooms.
Caroline LEIBRANDT, wife, 19, born California; father born Ohio, mother born California.
Annie CANFIELD (sister-in-law), 15, born California; father b. Ohio, mother b. California
Colbert CANFIELD (brother-in-law), 14, born California; father b. Ohio, mother b. California.
John LEIBRANDT, 65, widower, born Wittenburgh; parents born Wittenburgh; retired farmer
John LEIBRANDT, 31, single, born Indiana; father born Wittenburgh, mother born Maryland; keeps bathhouse.

36. 1880 Census - Monterey, Monterey County, California - 16 June 1880
Thomas WATSON, 46, born California; father born England, mother born California; farmer
Moreno WATSON, 39, born California; father born Chile, mother born California
Thomas WATSON, 23, born California; parents born California; laborer
Lewis WATSON, 21, born California; parents born California; laborer
Abel WATSON, 18, born California; parents born California
Aella WATSON, 17, born California; parents born California
Emma WATSON, 15, born California; parents born California
Sarah WATSON, 13, born California; parents born California
William WATSON, 11, born California; parents born California
Henry WATSON, 9, born California; parents born California
Mary WATSON, 7, born California; parents born California
Edward WATSON, 5, born California; parents born California
Henrietta WATSON, 2, born California; parents born California
Charles CANFIELD, boarder, 15; born California; father born Ohio, mother born California
Eliza BOUGHTON, boarder, 16, born California; father born New York, mother born California

37. 1889 San Francisco, California, City Directory
Colbert A. CANFIELD, engineer, 808 Mission, San Francisco

38. Anonymous. 1889. Historical sketch of the State Normal School at San Jose, California. Sacramento, California: State Printing Office.
Pages 53-54, 1874-1875: "The appropriation of $3,000 for apparatus, and of $500 annually for library, are being expended with great care, purchasing only those articles that will be of constant use. We felt warranted in expending $500 of the apparatus appropriation in the purchase of a very valuable collection of shells, consisting of nearly three thousand species, collected and named by the late Dr. Canfield, of Monterey, to be name the 'Canfield Collection.'"
Pages 74-75, 1880: "The burning of the contents of the old museum [on 10 February 1880] was a loss to science, as well as to the State. Chief among its treasures were the specimens in conchology, known as the Canfield collection. These Dr. Canfield, of Monterey, had been years in collecting from all parts of the world, and it is now next to impossible to obtain many of the species represented in his collection. Of other specialties, there was a large and fine collection of the birds of California, [etc.]."

39. 1900 Census - Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz County, California - 15 June 1900
Charles CANFIELD, 34, born October 1865; born California; father born Ohio, mother born California; grocer salesman; married 7 years
Cora B. CANFIELD, 28, born October 1871; born California; parents born English Canada [question this - other censuses say differently]; no children born
Sarah S. PICKNELL (sister-in-law), 16, born March 1884; born California; parents born California [note: obviously incorrect]

1900 Census - Pacific Grove, Monterey County, California - 2 June 1900
Colbert CANFIELD, 38, born April 1862; born California; father born Ohio, mother born California; carriage painter; married 8 years
Emma CANFIELD, 37, born August 1862; born California; parents born Maine; 3 children, all living.
Charles V. CANFIELD, 3, born December 1896; born California, parents born California
Marion CANFIELD, 5, born August 1894; born California, parents born California
Anna J. CANFIELD, 11 months, born June 1899; born California, parents born California
Effie L. VIRGIN (sister-in-law), 30, born September 1869; single; born California; parents born Maine

40. 1900 Census - Monterey, Monterey County, California - 11 June 1900
David LEIBBRANDT born December 1846, 53, born Indiana; father born Germany, mother born Maryland; farmer; married 4 years
Kate LEIBBRANDT born May 1875 New Jersey, age 25; parents born Germany; one child, living.
Algoe LEIBBRANDT, daughter, born August 1893, born California
Vernon LEIBBRANDT (son from first marriage) born February 1882, California, age 18; father born Indiana, mother born California
Harold LEIBBRANDT (son from first marriage) born January 1889, California, age 11; father born Indiana, mother born California

41. 1900 Census - San Francisco, San Francisco County, California - 1 June 1900
Emil OEST born January 1872, 28, born Germany; parents born Germany; grocer; married 3 years; emigrated 1886, in U.S. 14 years.
Anna OEST born February 1874, age 26 [sic?]; born California; father born California [sic], mother born California
Erna GOTHAN, niece, b. November 1887, 17, single; born Germany, parents born Germany

42. 1910 Census - San Francisco, San Francisco County, California - 26 April 1910
Colbert CANFIELD, lodger, widowed [incorrect], age 48; born California; father born Ohio, mother born California; advertising artist

43. 1910 Census - Alhambra, Los Angeles County, California - 19 April 1910
Emma CANFIELD, 38 [incorrect, I think; it is clearly written on the census form, but does not agree with the 1900 information]; born California; parents born Maine; married 17 years, 1st marriage [note: some other info does not agree]; 2 children, both living; nurse.
Marion CANFIELD (daughter), 15, born California; parents born California.

44. 1910 Census - Pacific Grove, Monterey County, California - 19 April 1910
Effie L. VIRGIN, single, 40; born California; parents born Maine; trained nurse
Anna J. CANFIELD, niece, 10, born California; parents born California

45. 1910 Census - Monterey, Monterey County, California - 24 April 1910
David LEIBBRANDT, 63, born Indiana; father born Germany, mother born Germany [sic]; farmer; second marriage, married 12 years
Catherine LEIBBRANDT, 34, born New Jersey; parents born Germany; first marriage; one child/one living.
Harold C. LEIBBRANDT, son from first marriage, 21, single; born California; father born Indiana, mother born California; farm laborer
Alzoe LEIBBRANDT, daughter from second marriage, 11, born California; father born Indiana, mother born California [sic]

46. 1910 Census - Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz County, California - 21 April 1910
Charles E. CANFIELD, age 44, born California; father born Ohio, mother born California; real estate and insurance agent; married 17 years.
Cora B. CANFIELD, 37, born California; parents born French Canada [note: this doesn't agree with other censuses]; had two children, both still living
Carlton E. CANFIELD, 9, born California; both parents born California
Laurence P. CANFIELD, 6, born California; both parents born California

47. 1910 Census - San Mateo, San Mateo County, California - 23 April 1910
Vernon LEIBBRANDT, 23, born California; father born Ohio [sic], mother born "USA;" house electrician; married 2 years.
Erna LEIBBRANDT, 27, born Germany; parents born Germany; one child, living.
Anita LEIBBRANDT, 3, born California; father born California, mother born Germany
Emil OEST, 38, born Germany; parents born Germany; jewelry manufacturer; married 13 years
Anna OEST, 45, born California; father born Ohio, mother born California; no children

48. 1920 Census - Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz County, California - 7 January 1920
Charles CANFIELD, 54, born California; father born Ohio, mother born California; real estate.
Cora CANFIELD, 45, born California; father born Vermont, mother born English Canada [note: one or both of these may be wrong]
Laurence CANFIELD, 15, born California; parents born California

49. 1920 Census -Toro Precinct, Monterey County, California - 16-19 January 1930
David LEIBBRANDT, 73, born Indiana; father born Germany, mother born Maryland; fruit farmer
Katherine LEIBBRANDT, 45, born New Jersey; parents born Germany

50. 1920 Census - Pacific Grove, Monterey County, California - 5 January 1920
Effie VIRGIN, 45, single, born California; father born Vermont [sic?], mother born Maine; nurse in sanitorium

51. 1920 Census - San Mateo, San Mateo County, California - 19 January 1920
Emil W. OEST, 48, born Germany; parents born Germany; proprietor, "preserving" (food, apparently)
Anita OEST, 55, born California; father born Ohio, mother born California
Harold LEIBBRANDT, nephew, 29, single, born California; father born Ohio [sic], mother born California; salesman, "preserving"
Vernon D. LEIBBRANDT, 37, born California; father born Ohio [sic], mother born California; electrical contractor
Erna LEIBBRANDT, 36, born Germany; parents born Germany
Anita LEIBBRANDT, 11, born California; father born California, mother born Germany
Vernon LEIBBRANDT, 1 1/12, born California; father born California, mother born Germany

52. 1920 Census - Stockton, San Joaquin County, California - 10-12 January 1920
Katherine COLBERG, 69, widow, born Germany; parents born Germany; emigrated to US 1865
Martha COLBERG, daughter, 30, single, born California; parents born Germany
Alzoe K. LEIBBRANDT, granddaughter, 21, single, born California; father born Ohio [sic], mother born New Jersey; office bookkeeper

53. 1930 Census - Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz County, California - 11 April 1930
Laurence CANFIELD, 25, born California; parents born California; real estate/insurance; married 2 years
Lucille CANFIELD, 25, born Pennsylvania; father born Kentucky, mother born Texas; no children

54. 1930 Census - Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz County, California - 2 April 1930
Charles E. CANFIELD, 64, born California; father born Ohio, mother born California; realtor.
Cora B. CANFIELD, 56, born California; father born Vermont, mother born Canada.

55. 1930 Census - Alisal, Monterey County, California - undated (April 1930)
Charles V. CANFIELD, 33, born California; parents born California; salesman, Shell Oil station; married 10 years
Elizabeth CANFIELD, 35, born Missouri; parents born Pennsylvania; no children listed

56. 1930 Census - Alisal, Monterey County, California - 10-12 April 1930
David LEIBRANDT, 83, born Germany [sic]; parents born Germany [sic]; rancher; first married at age 18
Katherine LEIBRANDT, 54, born Germany [sic]; parents born Germany; first married at age 20.
Mrs. B. J. MARKS, head, "married" (not widowed), 70, born Denmark; parents born Denmark; poultry grower on chicken ranch
Alice M. MARKS, 49, born Arizona; father born Germany, mother born Denmark
Agnes MARKS, 47, born California; father born Germany, mother born Denmark
Herman H. MARKS, 45, born California; father born Germany, mother born Denmark; poultryman on chicken ranch
Andrew MARKS, 41, born California; father born Germany, mother born Denmark; poultryman on chicken ranch
Alzoe MARKS, 31, born California; father born Indiana, mother born Germany
Ealon MARKS (daughter), 7, born California
Lloyd MARKS, 5, born California
Andrew J. MARKS, 1 7/12, born California

57. 1930 Census - Pacific Grove, Monterey County, California - 9-10 April 1930
E. Lena VIRGIN, 61, single, born California; parents born Maine; proprietor, private sanitorium

58. 1930 Census - San Mateo, San Mateo County, California - 2 April 1930
Vernon D. LEIBBRANDT, 48, born California; father born Ohio [sic], mother born California; building electrician; first married at age 24
Erna LEIBBRANDT, 47, born Germany; parents born Germany; first married at age 23
Anita LEIBBRANDT, 21, born California; father born California, mother born Germany
Vernon D. LEIBBRANDT, 11, born California; father born California, mother born Germany
Carleton E. LEIBBRANDT, 9, born California; father born California, mother born Germany

59. 1930 Census - Burlingame, San Mateo County, California - 12 April 1930
Ernie W. OEST, 58, born Germany; parents born Germany; food products manufacturer; first married at age 25
Anita M. OEST, 64, born California; father born Ohio, mother born California;

60. Anonymous. 2000. Santa Cruz Memorial Park Cemetery and Santa Cruz Mausoleum Compiled Records. Santa Cruz, California: The Genealogical Society of Santa Cruz County.
--Mary Ellen CANFIELD born 13 December 1867, died February 1950, age 82; born California
--Meta CANFIELD born 25 August 1880, died 21 April 1963, age 82; born Indiana
--Caroline LEIBRANDT born Ohio; died ca 1908, age 62
--Caroline M. LEIBRANDT born California; died ca 1890, age 30
--LEIBRANDT child born ca 1904 California, died ca 1904
--Christina LEIBRANDT born Germany, died ca 1878, age 70
--David LEIBRANDT died ca 1936
--Harold Canfield LEIBRANDT born 28 January 1889 California; died Oakland, California 18 June 1924, age 36
--Herbert J. LEIBRANDT born California, died ca 1936, age 57
--Ida E. LEIBRANDT born California 17 February 1864, died ca 1944, 79 years
--Infant of D. LEIBRANDT no dates; less than 1 year
--Jacob LEIBRANDT born Indiana, died ca 1921, 78 years
--John LEIBRANDT Jr. died ca 1913, age 63
--John LEIBRANDT Sr. born Germany, died ca 1895, age 80
--Katherine LEIBRANDT born Indiana, died Salinas ca 1936, age 89
--Katherine Louise LEIBRANDT born California, died ca 1940, age 58
--Walter H. LEIBRANDT born California, died ca 1877, 1 year
--William LEIBRANDT born California, died ca September 1919, 3 months

61. public provided family tree information [NOTE: most of this is not supported by any specific records, and is given only as source material to try and confirm]
--Anita WATSON born 1842 California, died 1870; parents James WATSON (1803-1863) and Maria Anna ESCAMILLA (1805-1871
--David LEIBBRANDT married Catherine CANFIELD 20 December 1877; she was reportedly age 18

62. World War I draft card information (original cards photographed on
--Charles Virgil CANFIELD; living in Los Angeles, building contractor, single; born 15 December 1897 Monterey, California; mother Mrs. Emma C. HALL, Los Angeles. Information provided 5 June 1918.
--Harold Canfield LEIBBRANDT; living in San Mateo, California; working in San Francisco as sales manager for Oest Fruit Company; single; born 22 January 1888 Santa Cruz, California. Information provided June 1917.
--Vernon David LEIBBRANDT; living in San Mateo, California; electrician for F. E. Newbury Electric Company; age 37, born 10 February 1881; wife Erma Helen LEIBBRANDT, San Mateo. Information provided 12 September 1918.

63. World War II casualties (from
Carleton LEIBBRANDT, Aviation Radio Technician 2c USNR; parents Mr. and Mrs. Vernon LEIBBRANDT, 24 12th Ave., San Mateo, California - no other details

64. Sclater, P. L. 1866. Living California vulture received in London. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 13:366.
Noted that the Zoological Society recently received a live California condor from Dr. C. A. Canfield of Monterey, California.

65. Renshaw, G. 1907. The Californian condor. The Zoologist (London), Fourth Series, 11 (794):295-298.
"On June 22nd, 1866, Dr. Colbert A. Canfield, of Monterey, California, presented a Californian Condor to the London Zoological Gardens, through the agency of Prof. Baird. Capt. J. M. Dow had brought it across the Isthmus of Panama, and it appears to have been the first example imported alive into this country. The specimen was figured in the 'Proceedings of the Zoological Society' for 1866; it was already a 'scarce bird'."

66. Anonymous. 1871. A California vulture. Daily Evening Bulletin (San Francisco, California), 19 August 1871.
"A California Vulture. The Monterey Republican of the 10th inst., says: Chained to a post in Dr. Canfield's front yard may be seen one of those rare birds known as the 'California Vulture.' He was captured in the hills south of Carmel Valley. This specimen is some six months old, and is two-thirds grown, and is quite a formidable looking youngster. The doctor intends shipping him to the Zoological Society of London."
COMMENT: This bird wasn't shipped to London, possibly because Dr. Canfield died not long after this article. The ultimate disposition of this bird is unknown.

67. Anonymous. 1864. A pretty pet! San Francisco (California) "Bulletin," 21 December 1864.
Quoting from the Monterey (California) "Gazette," 16 December 1864: "Some person, through accident or design, some few days since poisoned a pet vulture belonging to Dr. Canfield. The poison used was strychnine, and was probably administered in a piece of meat. The vulture was about eight months old, and measured across its wings, from tip to tip, 8 feet 9 1/2 inches."

68.Anonymous (1867). Report of the Council of the Zoological Society of London, read at the annual general meeting, April 29, 1867. London, England, Taylor and Francis.
Page 29: "Amongst the more remarkable additions to the Aviaries during the year 1866 may be noticed... A Californian Vulture (Cathartes californianus Shaw). This scarce bird has been presented to the Society by Dr. C. A. Canfield, of Monterey, California, Corr. Memb., through the intervention of the authorities of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington."

69. Anonymous (1871). Matters in Carmel Valley. Bulletin. San Francisco, California.
Anonymous. 1871. Matters in Carmel Valley. San Francisco (California) "Bulletin," 9 September 1871.
"Dr. Canfield's California vulture still stands guard in his front garden. The day after his arrival he nearly fell victim to the mischievous malevolence of the Monterey embroyo 'Hoodlums,' who pelted him with a pitiless storm of small projectiles. Now he is respected as an old resident, and as he is likely to remain at his post for the next four months, it is consoling to be able to relate that juvenile curiosity respecting his vultureship has quite subsided, and hopes are entertained that he may reach the hands of Dr. Sclater, of the Zoological Society of London, who will so dispose of him that he may feast his eyes on princes, if he cannot feast himself on princes' eyes."

70. Beal, C. M. and R. A. Beal (2003). Santa Cruz Beach Boardwalk, The early years - never a dull moment. Austin, Texas, The Pacific Group.
Information of Canfield family involvement in Santa Cruz boardwalk.
"Dr. Colbert Austin Canfield, of Smithsonian fame, married the daughter of James Watson, an early resident who operated one of the first general stores in 1822."

71. Anonymous (1865). Monterey. Daily Alta California. San Francisco, California. 10 Aug 1865
At recent convention in Salinas, "Dr. Canfield" was nominated as county coroner

72. Anonymous (1867). Monterey County officers. Daily Alta California. San Francisco, California. 16 Sept 1867
In recent election of Monterey County officers, C. A. Canfield was elected Coroner.

73. Taylor, A. S. (1858). The Southern California stage route. Daily Union. Sacramento, California. 23 January 1858
Based on information from Colbert Canfield, Alexander Taylor describes a route from San Francisco to Fort Tejon. He notes that Canfield has resided in Monterey County "for the last three years."

74. Anonymous (1945). Obituaries - Mrs. Anita M. Oest. Times. San Mateo, California.
San Mateo "Times," 3 December 1945
"Mrs. Anita M. Oest, 81, 1321 Cabrillo avenue, Burlingame, died early this morning in Mills hospital following a brief illness. Mrs. Oest, who was active in the North Burlingame Women's club, is survived by her husband, E. W. Oest, and a brother, Colbert Canfield of San Francisco. She is a native of California and for the past 40 years has resided in Burlingame.
"Funeral services will be held tomorrow from the Crosby-N. Gray chapel, 221 Park road, Burlingame, at 2 p.m., conducted by Mrs. F. W. Sewell, Christian Science reader. Inturnment will be at Woodlawn."

75. Anonymous. 1850. [Death notice: Lodemia B. Canfield]. Geauga Republic (Chardon, Ohio), 14 May 1850.
"Died in Chardon 12 May 1850, Mrs. Lodemia B. Canfield, age 42 years and 7 months, wife of Austin Canfield. Member of Congregational Church. Cause of death: Erysipelas (an acute streptococcal bacteria infection).


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